Psychography - what do you need to know about your clients?
Do you feel that your extensive customer base of knowledge based mostly on demographic data is not meeting your expectations? You are right - because demographic determination of the target group can often turn out to be insufficient and it was noticed already in the 1960s. Psychography, focused on the client's behavior and his personality, came to the rescue. To this day, it works perfectly in promotional and sales activities. Check what psychography is all about and what you should know about it!
Psychography - what is it?
As we mentioned, psychography appeared in the 1960s as an attempt to clarify the knowledge about the target group. It was born in an environment of marketers and promotion specialists who were not satisfied with the demographic description of customers. It did not help to match the advertising model and product to specific people - much more important than the question "who is the customer?" the question “what is the client and what determines his actions?” became the question. Psychography is a method that involves examining the lifestyle and behavior of clients.
Psychographic research turned out to be helpful in matching appropriate forms of promotion to a specific group of people. The basis of psychography in marketing is customer segmentation in relation to the classification of psychographic types. The best known classification is the one created by the well-known American advertising agency Young & Rubicam. It is called Cross Cultural Consumers Classification and distinguishes between seven different types of customers.
Psychography - Young & Rubicam classification
Psychography classifies clients according to psychographic types. The so-called 4C classification was created at the turn of the 1960s and 1970s on the basis of research by the American psychologist Abraham Maslow. Do you know the concept of Maslow's pyramid, also known as the pyramid of needs or the hierarchy of needs? Certainly yes, but we will remind you of its most important elements, because it was on its basis that Young & Rubicam employees created seven types of clients. Maslow's pyramid presents a hierarchical arrangement of human needs - from the most basic to the highest-order needs, such as self-fulfillment.
At the very bottom (at the base of the pyramid) there are physiological needs, above them the need for security, higher - the need for love and belonging, even higher - the need for respect and recognition. At the very top, there is a need for self-realization, including activities that satisfy both our curiosity (cognitive needs) and hunger for beauty, harmony (aesthetic needs).
Young & Rubicam assigned a specific value to each need - these values in practice mean what a given person (client) focuses on the most. These values include Survival, Escape, Safety, Status, Control, Discovery, and Enlightenment.They became the basis for designating specific types of people.
Psychography - types of clients
Survival - Resigned
Survival is associated with physiological needs. The Resigned is associated with Survival. Its goals are basic, down-to-earth, and when selecting certain brands, it primarily takes into account the economic aspect. The resigned easily fit into and persist in designated socially and culturally traditional roles. They eagerly refer to the past times and have a problem with proper adaptation to the present day. In order to meet their tastes with the offer, one should point to tradition, long duration, well-established position on the market - the resigned most often choose what they know well and what has existed around them for many years. The low price of a specific product can also be an effective lure. However, put in the offer addressed to the Resignees on basic necessities, too sophisticated products may not arouse their interest.
Escape - Struggling
Escape is associated with the need for security. Escape is the domain of a man called Strugglers. The struggling person wants to get away from the surrounding problems in all ways, often makes imprudent decisions, driven by a sudden impulse and the prospect of benefits and solutions to specific problems. They make small plans for the past, but prefer to sink into their safe niche. They tend to escape into addictions. When creating a promotion aimed at Struggling, choose a literal, clear message that shows numerous benefits (especially material benefits). Bet on clear graphic elements, don't be afraid to be shocked in the visual message.
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Safety - Going with the flow
In psychography based on the Young & Rubicam classification, the attribute of Safety is related to the need to belong and love. It is characterized by those who go with the flow (called Mainstream). Their most important motto is "do not stand out". Going with the flow, they easily adapt to the existing conditions and do not try to stand out above the crowd, lest they accidentally create enemies for themselves. They operate according to a set order and schedule, focusing primarily on the benefits that can be obtained as a community, not as an individual. They are the most numerous type worldwide according to the 4C classification. They identify easily with large, recognizable brands, ideally when they sign up as family-friendly. Do not introduce too bold, risky content in your promotional activities aimed at the mainstream - rather focus on conformism, family values, and rationality. Show “cold” the benefits that can be achieved. Going with the flow, indicate the widespread use of the product. The message should be relatively simple and humorous.
Status - Aspiring
The Status value is assigned to a need for recognition, but this is precisely a need to gain recognition in the eyes of others. It is especially important to the Aspirers group. Aspirants build their value on the opinion of other people about them and make sure that it is the best. Therefore, they will try to excel in various aspects - appearance, fashion, charisma, eloquence - only to obtain the prestige they expect. Aspirants follow trends, they want to surround themselves with high quality in order to be recognized as specialists in a given field. In promotional activities, emphasize the importance of the product, its high quality, the prestige of having it, and compliance with current trends. Make sure you create a belief in the Aspirator that the purchase of a given good will transfer him to a specific sphere, an exclusive group. Also, the form of your advertising message should be professional - it will be an additional incentive for Aspiring People.
Control - A successful man
Control, like Status, comes with a need for recognition, but it is precisely a need for recognition in your own eyes. Control is the guiding value for the Successful Man (called. Succeeder). Successful people are self-confident, strongly goal-oriented and relentlessly pursuing them. Most often they are well organized, have an established position in a given community, hold responsible positions, and brand specific projects with their person. Successful people are looking for prestigious brands because they know that they deserve them, although they are also interested in relaxation and proper rest after hard work. When you create a campaign for Successful People, pay attention to the uniqueness of the brand, emphasize that they deserve the highest quality, do not try to gain their attention with flashy, bold slogans - rather focus on subdued, matter-of-fact arguments.
Discovering - Explorers
Discovery is a value that grew out of human cognitive need. Explorers are focused on Discovery - they constantly search, shift the boundaries of cognition, constantly demand something new and undiscovered. Explorers of all ages are young at heart, eager for new experiences. They like to go outside the box and are non-conformists. The offer addressed to Explorers must first of all emphasize the uniqueness of the product, its rarity, modernity and unconventional nature. The form of the campaign itself should be original, a bit shocking, using new techniques, and surprising.
Enlightenment - Reformers
Enlightenment is related in part to everything that results from the need for self-realization - a cognitive need, an aesthetic need, an experience of transcendence. Enlightened it in the classification of Young & Rubicam Reformers (Reformers). They are independent, they value freedom in all its aspects - they are typical free-thinkers, not obeying fashions and trends, going their own way. Most of all types are oriented towards intellectual and spiritual values, and the least are towards material gain. In campaigns aimed at Reformers, first of all present the social aspect, because it is extremely important to them, take care of the aesthetic value of the message and the product. Avoid manipulation methods as they may be counterproductive.
Psychography is an effective method in profiling your clients and effectively helps to choose the appropriate form of promotion and its subject depending on the target type. Determining the types of your clients will be a difficult task, requiring careful monitoring of their behavior, but it will undoubtedly bring benefits.