Pro forma does not constitute the basis for recording the purchase of goods


In the circulation of company documents, it happens that entrepreneurs find pro forma invoices, which are usually a preliminary commercial document preceding the invoice. Such documents do not constitute the basis for recording an economic event in tax registers. Can the pro forma be the basis for recognizing the purchase of goods, if this activity is not invoiced in the same month in which the delivery took place? We discuss in the article.

Pro forma invoice - is it an accounting document?

Regulation of the Minister of Finance on keeping the tax book of revenues and expenses in § 11 sec. 3 lists in detail the documents that may constitute the basis for posting an economic event in the KPiR. This paragraph does not mention the pro forma, therefore such a document cannot be the basis for an entry in the KPiR. The position is also confirmed by the Undersecretary of State in the Ministry of Finance, who, in response to the interpellation No. 17615, indicates that: “A document called a pro forma invoice is not an accounting voucher. It is a document issued in business transactions and its purpose may be, for example, to confirm the submission of an offer or acceptance of an order for execution. Clearly marking this document with pro forma words means that it cannot be assigned the value of an invoice within the meaning of VAT regulations, as the entity issuing such a document clearly indicates that it is not an invoice ".

Importantly, the pro forma document can be a document on the basis of which the contractor has the opportunity to pay (in whole or in part) for the order, as well as to inform the buyer about prices, etc. goods) and informs about the possibility of its conclusion under certain conditions.

Even though the pro forma invoice contains most of the elements of the commercial invoice, it is not an accounting document and is not subject to records in the KPiR. Neither the issuing of a pro forma invoice by the seller nor its receipt by the buyer have any tax consequences, therefore there are no grounds for recording it in the tax book.

How to settle the purchase of goods in the KPiR?

As stated in § 16 section 1 of the above-mentioned of the regulation, the purchase of commercial goods and basic materials should be included in the KPiR immediately after their receipt, not later than before their transfer to the warehouse / processing or sale. This rule applies to taxpayers using the method of accounting for costs in the KPiR: cash or accrual.

Therefore, if the goods are received together with the sales invoice (it is a regular sales invoice, not a pro forma invoice) or later, the goods should be included in the KPiR on the date they are incurred. The date of payment is the date of issuing the invoice.

On the other hand, if the taxpayer receives the goods before the invoice, and the invoice is delivered after one month - then the taxpayer is obliged to prepare a detailed description of the purchased goods. It is the description that will be the basis for recognizing the purchase in the KPiR. This document should contain:

  • name, surname (company name) and delivery address;

  • quantity (number), type and price of the purchased goods;

  • purchase value of goods;

  • date and signature of the person who accepted the goods.

If, after receiving the invoice, it turns out that the value from the invoice is inconsistent with the value included in the prepared description, the taxpayer recognizes the difference in the KPiR, but under the date of receipt of the invoice.

Purchase of goods that are trade goods or basic materials should be reported in the 10th column of the KPiR - Purchase of Trade Goods and Basic Materials.

Pro forma invoice - can it be a detailed description of the goods?

As mentioned above, if the taxpayer has received commercial goods or basic materials without an invoice, the purchase is shown in the KPiR based on the detailed description of the goods. In this case, the previously received pro forma may constitute the indicated description. If it does not contain all the elements, the taxpayer may complete them on a given document and on its basis demonstrate the purchase in the KPiR.

In summary, the sales invoice is the basis for posting the purchase of goods. At the same time, if the taxpayer receives commercial goods or basic materials before issuing the invoice, the purchase will be included in the KPiR on the basis of a self-prepared description of the purchased goods, which may be a pro forma (if supplemented with missing elements of the description).